To understand motivation in the workplace from a change management perspective, we need to be aware of the context in which this takes place.
In the current economic climate, the key drivers for change in corporate life are all to do with increased efficiency, cost reduction and corporate restructuring.
Motivation in the workplace: balancing organisational and individual interests
There is a potential fundamental problem here in that these drivers as expressed by directors in terms of organisational performance are not necessarily aligned to the personal needs and drivers of the workforce.
So we can see from the outset that successfully achieving motivation in the workplace is the result of a balancing of enterprise performance requirements with individual fulfilment needs.
The literature of motivation research from Maslow onwards has highlighted the complexity and multi-faceted nature of human needs.
The process theories of motivation clearly showed that people need to have the WIFM [what's in it for me] question answered. They need to see the steps and they need to believe that they can do it and that they want to. They also need to believe in the equity or fairness of what you as leader tell them.
Motivation in the workplace: rationality vs the emotional dimension
So, on the one hand we are rational beings focused on meeting what may be regarded as our survival needs – very loosely expressed in terms of pay and rations – and are prepared to enter into a Faustian pact with our employers on the basis of an initially perceived mutuality of interest.
But, on the other hand, the emotional dimension rapidly emerges as that initial perception of mutuality of interest rapidly dwindles as – especially in the current climate - we are expected to improve our performance, to produce more for no more [maybe less] money and often with less resources.
Transactional leadership focus
In my experience the commonest leadership style in many corporates [and especially in the UK] is essentially transactional in nature, that is, based on “getting the job done”, short-term and hard data focused, and supports the structures and systems that maximise efficiency and guarantee short-term profits.
This approach clearly works but it is short-term in focus.
The main reason for this in the UK is the culture of “short-termism” where monthly and quarterly targets drive companies.
The direct effect of this is that this transactional focus on motivation in the workplace is nearly always on getting the quickest return, and in change management terms by fixing the most obvious and glaring problems.
This constant focus on quick fixes often reflects a lack of investment in the organisation in the first place.
Transformational rather than transactional leadership
An alternative to the typical transactional leadership prevalent in many corporates today is transformational leadership – a concept first brought to prominence by James MacGregor Burns in his book Leadership  – and one that is deeply resonant with the practise of inspirational motivation in the workplace.
Transformational leadership theory transcends transactional leadership and rather than describing a set of specific behaviours, it outlines an ongoing process by which "leaders and followers raise one another to higher levels of morality and motivation" [Leadership, p20].
Transformational leadership is all about values and meaning, and a purpose that transcends short-term goals and focuses on higher order needs.
Inspirational motivation in the workplace
The transformational leadership concept is supported by post Maslovian motivation research notably Herzberg, ERG theory and subsequent research and theories which highlight that for all our rationality we are primarily emotional creatures driven [in broad terms] by growth needs for achievement, recognition, personal development and personal growth.
Latest insights and understandings based on recent research from the field of neurology indicate that at the physiological level, we are quite literally “hardwired” for transcendence as well as survival:
"The brain has two primary functions that can be considered from either a biological or evolutionary perspective. These two functions are self-maintenance and self-transcendence. The brain performs both of these functions throughout our lives." Neuroscientist Dr. Andrew Newberg - Associate Professor in the Department of Radiology at the University of Pennsylvania.
Motivation in the workplace is all to do with energy
Another perspective from the field of quantum physics has shown that the universe is a single gigantic field of energy, and that this energy field is an undivided whole in a constant state of dynamic flux.
From this has emerged the understanding that everything is interconnected as part of that whole and every manifestation of "slowed down energy" that appears in the physical world as a "tangible something" remains at a sub atomic level simply as energy. Thus we as human beings can be regarded as energy beings.
We are energy beings functioning in an environment that is an energy field. So motivation in the workplace – or anywhere else for that matter – is essentially all to do with energy.
In practical terms this means energising, enthusing or inspiring people.
Current thinking in change leadership and management
This emphasis on the emotional dimension of motivation in the workplace is reflected in the work and focus of many current thought leaders in the world of change management and change leadership, and who are now speaking vociferously about the importance of the emotional dimension of leadership and the need to address the human dimension of change to motivate people. For example:
Daniel Goleman and others have stressed the importance of the leader's ability to articulate a message that resonates with their followers' emotional reality and their sense of purpose, and thus motivate them to move in a specific direction.
John Kotter says that the single biggest challenge facing leadership in a change process is just getting people to change their behaviour - and that happens... "When they are motivated to do so, and that happens when you speak to their feelings."
Jon Katzenbach highlights the value of personalising the workplace and making and demonstrating a personal commitment by getting involved and truly understanding what your staff is doing on a daily basis.
Andy Pearson emphasises how people will respond to their leaders efforts to connect with their emotional side: "Great leaders find a balance between getting results and how they get them."
Harnessing motivation in the workplace as source of sustainable competitive advantage
At the strategic level, the practical application of addressing the emotional dimension with this transformational leadership style is very powerful, and especially when it harnesses the emotional, aspirational and transcendent needs of the individual to generate genuine organisational sustainable competitive advantage.
In his book Peak Performance: Aligning the Hearts and Minds of Your Employees Jon Katzenbach examined the leaders of some of America's most successful corporations and found distinct patterns to their employee motivation techniques and the means by which they engaged their employees to capitalise on emotional energy and consistently achieve higher levels of performance than their competition.
All of these enterprises confirm that performance of the workforce is the distinctive competitive advantage of their business.
Katzenbach captures the essence of what it takes in terms of employee motivation in the workplace to achieve peak performance and describes the differences in core values and management styles that deliver this.
The first step was to identify the source of competitive advantage by finding the critical segment of employees whose collective performance formed the core of the organisational competitive advantage.
Katzenbach identifies some compelling commonalities shared by leaders in these companies as they harnessed emotional energy as a source of competitive advantage:
He found that they all developed a straightforward "workforce value proposition" that makes clear exactly what is expected of employees and exactly what they can expect in return from their employers.
Practising motivation in the workplace at a tactical level
At the day-to-day tactical management level this all boils down to finding out what matters to your people individually, as Dick Axelrod, the co-founder of US based Axelrod Group Inc [a consulting firm that pioneered the use of employee involvement to effect largescale organisational change] says:
"Despite the best of intentions, leaders are still employing change processes that produce disengagement. Creating an engaged organisation requires leaders to choose a strategy that, by its very nature engages people."
They also interpret life in different ways and are motivated by different things. A significant aspect of successful motivation in the workplace is to take full account of your people’s individual differences.
But not only are their drivers for motivation in the workplace different to yours - their thought processes are different as well.
Given that the typical Myers Briggs type of a business leader [ENTJ] is only shared by approximately 1.8% of the population [based on estimated percentages of the 16 types in the American population using inferential statistics based on a random sampling of 3009 people culled from a total pool of 16,000 in 1998] then less than 1 in 50 of your people will think in the same way you do.
Motivation in the workplace by translating vision and strategy into actionable steps
Although people will hear what you say when you outline your vision and strategy, and will probably agree with you, at the individual level, most of them are not able to translate all that into productive purposeful action.
This is not because they are stupid, and does not necessarily mean that they are resistant to it but it does often mean that the jump from vision and strategy to practical implementation is too big - without practical support.
As change leader - it really is your responsibility to make no assumptions, and to "grind out" and communicate those actionable steps.
So often, this just doesn't happen. Leaders don't lead and managers don't manage. It is assumed that: "they've been told what to do and they'll go away and do it". Wrong! It is assumed that there isn't time and it isn't necessary to take the time to do this. Wrong again!
It is up to you to define and communicate those actionable steps, and to manage your people through the process of implementing and integrating those steps as the new modus operandi.
Leading your people through change, putting it all together and managing the whole messy business
The literature of research [into motivation in the workplace] has, from Maslow onwards, highlighted the complexity and multi-faceted nature of human needs.
On the one hand we are rational beings focused on meeting what may be regarded as our survival needs – very loosely expressed in terms of pay and rations – and are prepared to enter into a Faustian pact with our employers on the basis of an initially perceived mutuality of interest.
But, on the other hand, the emotional dimension rapidly emerges as that initial perception of mutuality of interest rapidly dwindles as – especially in the current climate - we are expected to improve our performance, to produce more for no more [maybe less] money and often with fewer resources.